5.6.2 IUL has a policy of non-discrimination for transgender people

Academic Freedom

 International University of Leadership and the IUL community are committed to the principles of liberty and equality. The University recognizes that the members of this community must be able to express themselves freely and at the same time expect tolerance and respect from one another; both are essential to our mission. Indeed, meaningful exchanges cannot occur in the absence of respect and tolerance. Intellectual vigor is best sustained when the free exchange of ideas is carried on within an environment supportive of human dignity and self-esteem. With freedom should come the wisdom and the responsibility to think before one speaks. For these reasons, the University condemns all forms of discriminatory interference with the exercise of the rights of an individual or of any group to which that individual belongs. Such abridgement of rights is particularly abhorrent when carried out by those who have power over the individual they are affecting—whether that power comes from an administrative, academic, or any other position on campus. On the other hand, the University does not believe the free expression of ideas can always take place without pain or discomfort either to those who speak, listen, read, or write. The intellectual process, by its very nature, can be distressing, but IUL does not necessarily regard actions that are distressing as violations of its codes of conduct. In accordance, then, with the ideals of academic freedom, every member of the IUL community should feel that he or she can enter into controversy without fear of being silenced or constrained. This community’s commitment to the free exchange of ideas and pursuit of knowledge requires a wide range of protections for speech and expression, even when noxious or offensive. Belonging to this community, however, carries with it the responsibility of extending respect and openness of mind to others.

Responsibility of the University to Its Members

It is the responsibility of every member of the University to respect the rights and privileges of all others in the University as enumerated below.

  1. Freedom of assembly, speech, belief, and the right of petition, including the right of petition to the appropriate university authority, in the event of an academic evaluation or classroom situation considered by the petitioner to be prejudiced or untenable.
  2. Protection from discrimination and abuse:
  3. International University is fully committed to a policy of equal opportunity and non-discrimination. The University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national or ethnic origin, age, disability, veteran status, sex, marital status, sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression.
  4. Also prohibited is any form of discriminatory harassment performed by a member or members of the University against any other individual or groups. Discriminatory harassment may include any action or statement intended to insult, stigmatize, or degrade an individual or group on the basis of the categories of discrimination listed in 2a.
  5. Sexual misconduct, including, but not limited to, sexual harassment, sexual assIULt, sexual exploitation, stalking and retaliation, is prohibited.
  6. The right of privacy in university residence halls. The living quarters of members of the University are private, and without an invitation from the occupant may not be entered unless an emergency arises involving the health or safety of the occupant; or for the enforcement of health or safety regulations; or in the event of a suspected violation of a university regulation, upon receiving permission from the vice president for student affairs; or, if for any other reason, upon 24 hours’ notice to the occupant. Where two or more individuals occupy the same living quarters, permission to enter from one occupant does not permit the entering person to assume that he/she has entered the quarters of anyone except the person who extended the invitation. This provision does not restrict entrance by custodial personnel and personnel retained by the University to provide services at scheduled intervals.
  7. The right to expect that communication between a student and a member of the university staff or faculty with whom the student has had a counseling relationship is confidential and without the consent of the student may be disclosed by the counselor only when the health or safety of an individual is jeopardized or when compelled by legal process. In an instance involving the health or safety of an individual, disclosure will be made only to individuals in a position to assist the counselor or to alleviate the danger. In no case shall the content of such communication constitute a basis for disciplinary action or be introduced as evidence before the university judiciary.
  8. The right to enter into physician-patient or similar relationships with medical and other professional personnel of the University with the understanding and assurance that confidence will be maintained in accordance with the ethical standards of the professions.
  9. The right to confidentiality of disciplinary records, which may be released to other than appropriate university personnel only upon permission of the student.
  10. The right to abstain from performing acts and the right to be protected against actions that may be harmful to the health or emotional stability of the individual or that degrade the individual or infringe upon his/her personal dignity.

NOTE: This language is directed at all forms of personal harassment including the use or threat of physical violence and physical or nonphysical coercion.

  1. The right to be protected by standards of justice and fairness in any proceedings with the University.

Note: Fair and reasonable treatment should govern the access to and administration of all university facilities and programs.

IUL’s Code of Ethics

The university is a place where the exercise of the rights and freedoms is a priority. The university is the protector of the ethical values which have to be applied by everyone within each university activity. Teaching, research, campus life and community life cannot be exempted from the respect of the human person. To this end, the respect of the physical and moral integrity and the respect for human dignity are essential. The members of the university community have to receive a fair treatment. This is necessary to create an environment conductive to ensure an effective operation to the university. This also enables to pursue scientific and educational objectives. The purpose of this charter is to guarantee the ethics and deontology within the university.

  • The student agrees to sign it upon her/his registration and to respect it throughout the year.
  • The student has the right to equal treatment, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, nationality, language, handicap, sexual preference, age, and religion, political or other opinion.
  • The student has the right to quality education. The quality training of the present and future generation has to be secured by the university. This is its primary responsibility.
  • The student has the right to express her/his opinion freely. She/he has the right to investigate and discuss about all the subjects connected to the disciplines taught, subject to the ethical rules.
  • The student has the right to access in a transparent manner to any relevant information concerning the curriculum and the examination process for each discipline.
  • The student has the right to consult her/his examination paper and to contest the result before the appointed instance.
  • The student agrees not to infringe other students and staff members’ rights.
  • The student agrees to comply with an adult, responsible and respectful behavior towards the staff members and towards the other students.
  • The student agrees to be motivated by the pursuit of truth into the search of knowledge. This search is the condition for academic freedom, through the freedom of scientific instruction and research. Any other form of motivation, which does not respect the integrity and impartiality values, shall be outlawed.
  • The student agrees not to crib. Plagiarism undermines the diploma’s credibility as well as the scientific quality. This cannot be tolerated within the university. Paraphrase is not forbidden but not recommended. The student agrees to quote a source and to use quotation marks when she/he keeps several terms. Plagiarism is a serious fraud of which the disciplinary measure can go so far as the exclusion of the establishment.
  • The student agrees not to offer gifts or other kind of benefits to teaching or administrative staffs for the purpose of an overvaluation or to obtain a diploma.

Human rights Center


The Islamic University of Lebanon believes that combining understanding of the impact of past conflict on proper state building and reform, in addition to proper equipment of youth with communication arts to better express and exchange ideas would be an essential milestone towards reaching national consensus and be able to move forward despite the heterogeneous nature of the Lebanese population.


The Islamic University of Lebanon, aims through this project, to build and anchor a collective national consciousness in Lebanese youth.

The project would be supporting Lebanese students from different backgrounds and confessions to become aware of Human Rights and freedom of expression fundamentals and skilled in the techniques of oratory arts, debate and advocacy; capacitated in mediation and conflict resolution techniques and aware of post conflict resolution and processes such as transitional justice, remembrance and reconciliation in addition to being provided with a safe space for reconciliation and expression, in addition to knowledge production and dissemination.

Such faction of the youth is expressing an interest and certain frustration from not always being able to understand the Lebanese challenges and unable to properly channel their ideas.

Indirectly, this project also targets the general Lebanese public who is still in need to be aware of the full scope of topics such as Freedom of Expression, Human Rights and Conflict Resolution.

Overall objective – Impact

Anchoring of a collective national consciousness in Lebanese youth, resolving past conflict and creating a human right centred peaceful coexistence.

Indirectly, this project also targets the general Lebanese public who is still in need to be aware of the full scope of topics such as Freedom of Expression, Human Rights and Conflict Resolution.

Specific objective(s) – Outcome(s)

Lebanese Students from different backgrounds aware of Human Rights and freedom of expression fundamentals and skilled in the techniques of oratory arts, debate and advocacy.

Lebanese students capacitated in mediation and conflict resolution techniques and aware of post conflict resolution and processes (Transitional justice, remembrance etc.)

Creation of a safe space for reconciliation and expression, in addition to knowledge production and dissemination, gathering at least 30 young men and women from different confessions and backgrounds in Lebanon.


Development of 4 debates teams engaged in debates, trainings and bi-monthly simulations

International Freedom of Expression day Forum at the university

A 2 days training on Mediation techniques and conflict resolutions

Recommendations from Colloquium on Transitional justice and duty of memory on April 13th

Establishment of a Center for Human Rights and Freedom of expression at the university

Student made cyclical Human Rights newsletter


  1. Training boot camp
  2. Round-tables
  3. Debate
  4. Colloquium

Gender Equality in Lebanon, Reality, challenges, and scope

Executive Summary

Gender equality and women’s empowerment in Lebanon

Gender Equality

Lebanon is a signatory to several international conventions, covenants and agreements that seek to protect and promote human rights and women’s rights, such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. In 2012 the government approved the NCLW’s Strategy for Women’s Affairs in Lebanon 2011–2021. This ten–year strategy has 12 strategic objectives that touch on all aspects of women’s lives. The strategy’s plan for 2017–2019 is being implemented and monitored through published annual reports. According to WEF GGR in 2017, Lebanon ranked 109th in each of education and health with scores of 0.956 and 0.957 respectively. Equal opportunities are provided in education for both sexes, as proven by the gender parity index. Also the index averaged 0.932 for primary education enrolment, 1.00 for secondary education enrolment, and 1.00 for tertiary education enrolment for the same year. Lebanon ranks first on GGI with 64.9 percent and 45.7 percent females, compared with 64.75 percent and 39.5 percent males enrolled in secondary and tertiary education respectively. Literacy rates are 88.09 percent for females aged above 15 and 99.34 percent for females aged between 15 and 24.28 Women’s participation in economic life is increasing: their labour force participation rate stands at 26.3 percent (WEF GGR 2017). In 2017, the minister of state for women’s affairs requested the council of ministers to implement a women’s qouta when appointing senior officials and board memebrs in public administrations. Women currently make up 27 percent of the newly appointed positions in the diplomatic corps, 30 percent of the Electoral Management Body, 23 percent of officials of national security positions, and 17 percent of the Social and Economic Council. Women constitute only 5.4 percent of local government. In October 2017 half (47.5 percent) of the justice sector were women. This is a marked increase from 15 percent in 1993. It is expected that 50.4% of judges will be female by November 2019, as more male judges reach retirement age and more women enter the sector. Female legislators with senior official and managerial positions account for eight percent, and in 2013 little more than four percent of firms had women top managers.29 The public salary scale law ratified in 2017 (Law 46/2017) gives married women in the public sector the flexibility to work part-time, with a commensurate salary cut.

Lebanon, Human Rights Report

Lebanon is a parliamentary republic based on the 1943 National Pact, which apportions governmental authority among a Maronite Christian president, a Shia speaker of the Chamber of Deputies (parliament), and a Sunni prime minister. The law officially recognizes 18 religious sects or confessions. In 2016 parliament elected Michel Aoun to the presidency, ending more than two years of political deadlock. Following the 2017 passage of the new electoral law, the government held parliamentary elections in 2018 after parliament had extended its legal term three times between 2013 and 2017. The elections were peaceful and considered generally free and fair. Following weeks of mass protests, then prime minister Saad Hariri resigned in October 2019, and a new government under Prime Minister Hassan Diab was formed on January 22. After a devastating explosion on August 4 at the Port of Beirut killed more than 200 persons and injured more than 6,500 others, triggering another wave of street protests, Diab resigned August 10. On August 31, Mustapha Adib was designated prime minister, but on September 26, he resigned after failing to form a cabinet. On October 22, former prime minister Saad Hariri was again designated as prime minister to form a new cabinet, but the government formation process continued at year’s end.

The Internal Security Forces, under the Ministry of Interior, are responsible for law enforcement. The Directorate of General Security, also under the Ministry of Interior, is responsible for border control but also exercises some domestic security responsibilities. The Lebanese Armed Forces, under the Ministry of Defense, are responsible for external security but are authorized to arrest and detain suspects on national security grounds. The Lebanese Armed Forces also arrested alleged drug traffickers, managed protests, enforced building codes related to refugee shelters, and intervened to prevent violence between rival political factions. The General Directorate of State Security, reporting to the prime minister through the Higher Defense Council, is responsible for investigating espionage and other national security matters. The Parliamentary Police Force reports to the speaker of parliament and is tasked with protecting parliament premises as well as the speaker’s residence in Ain al-Tineh. Both the Internal Security Forces and the Lebanese Armed Forces provide units to the Parliamentary Police Force. Civilian authorities maintained control over the government’s armed forces and other security forces, although Palestinian security and militia forces, the designated foreign terrorist organization Hizballah, and other extremist elements operatedoutside the direction or control of government officials. Members of security forces committed some abuses.

The Syrian conflict affected the country economically and socially. Over the past nine years, the conflict has generated an influx of more than one million Syrian refugees and strained the country’s already weak infrastructure and ability to deliver social services.

Significant human rights issues included: allegations of torture by security forces; arbitrary arrest or detention, including excessive periods of pretrial detention by security forces; serious political interference with the judiciary; serious restrictions on free expression, the press, and the internet, including violence, threats of violence or unjustified arrests or prosecutions against journalists, censorship, and the existence of laws criminalizing libel; refoulement of refugees; high-level and widespread official corruption; and criminalization of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex status or conduct.

Although the legal structure provides for prosecution and punishment of officials who committed human rights abuses, enforcement remained a problem, and government officials enjoyed a measure of impunity for human rights abuses, including evading or influencing judicial processes. The country suffers from endemic corruption.

  1. The National Action Plan for Human Rights in Lebanon.

Executive Summary The Parliamentary Human Rights Committee prepared this plan in cooperation with relevant international organizations, and in partnership with all stakeholders. The plan aims at defining the legislative, procedural, executive and judicial measures necessary to promote and protect human rights in Lebanon. It is part of a comprehensive periodical review which Lebanon undertook to carry out in light of relevant human rights conventions, studies and reports. It seeks to address human rights issues comprehensively over a course of six years (2014-2019). It also sets out necessary planning to have it implemented. It is based on the underlying belief that the duty of the state is not limited to referring to or ratifying relevant international conventions only, but it is to exert efforts to amend or repeal any contradicting national laws, issue new ones in line with relevant international conventions, and ensure efficient and comprehensive implementation of the international law. It is also, the duty of the state to allocate the resources needed to ensure the proper implementation of the plan, in cooperation and coordination with both the public and private sectors. Therefore, it is necessary to have decrees and decisions issued (at the same time or subsequently, and it becomes the duty of the state’s executive and judicial institutions, and the people in general, to respect the provisions of these decrees and decisions. Currently, the human rights situation in Lebanon has a lot of positive aspects which can and should be enhanced. Such aspects are rooted in the general principles of the Lebanese Constitution, and the agreements and conventions that Lebanon adhered to. In fact, the state has taken a number of measures and initiatives for the better protection of human rights, both at the institutional and legislative levels. These measures and initiatives have enhanced the integrity, independence, and efficiency of the judiciary and contributed to the establishment of the Ombudsman’s office as an important resource to this end. Moreover, it has made a milestone achievement by preparing a draft law to establish a national institution for human rights. All of these measures have been taken in conjunction with the endeavors of meeting Lebanon’s international commitments, and achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and in collaboration with regional and international human rights bodies. It is extremely important to raise awareness about this plan and ensure it is communicated to the largest possible audience, in Lebanon or abroad. This may be achieved by publishing the plan and its translation on a broad scale, and incorporating it in the educational curriculums. The Parliament is also expected to work more expediently towards ensuring Lebanon’s continuous adherence to international conventions, and to establish an independent institution for human rights. As for the executive authorities, they are expected to take all necessary measures to implement this plan. For example, a minister should be in charge of human rights issues, develop relevant national expertise, and prepare international progress reports in this area.

The plan identifies twenty one essential themes that represent the most fundamental rights. It describes the constitutional, legal, and international grounds upon which each of these rights depends on. It also describes the current situation of each right, including areas of weakness and areas for improvement. It concludes with recommendations for improvement and ways to address weaknesses, by defining compulsory standards to support and protect these rights. The task of implementing these standards is entrusted with both the Parliament as the legislative authority, and administrative bodies as the executive authority. As for the judiciary, it is also expected to support such implementation. The themes mentioned above can be classified into the following basic categories: • The rights and freedoms related to the achievement of justice including: the independence of the judiciary, the principles of investigation and arrest, the prohibition of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, the prohibition of enforced disappearance, prison and detention facilities reform, and the abolition of death penalty. • The civil and political rights and freedoms including: the freedom of expression, opinion and the media, the freedom of association, the protection from interference with the right to privacy, and the prohibition of wiretapping. • The economic, social and cultural rights including: the right to work and to social security, the right to health, the right to education, the right to housing, the right to culture, and the right to a healthy environment. • The rights of the most vulnerable groups including: women’s rights, children’s rights, the rights of persons with disabilities, the rights of migrant workers, the social and economic rights of Palestinian and non-Palestinian refugees. Moving to a more detailed presentation, the plan describes each theme and recommends relevant remedies.

Lebanese Constitution

Chapter II

The Lebanese, their rights and duties

Article 6

The Lebanese nationality and the method for its acquisition, preservation and loss are determined by law.

– Article 7

All Lebanese are equal before the law and they enjoy equal civil and political rights and bear public duties and duties without any difference between them.

Article 8

Personal freedom is protected and protected by law, and no one can be arrested, imprisoned, or detained except in accordance with the provisions of the law, and a crime cannot be identified.

Or assign a penalty except in accordance with the law.

Article 9

Freedom of belief is absolute and the state, by performing the duties of honoring God Almighty, respects all religions and sects and guarantees the freedom to perform religious rites under

Its protection is provided that this does not violate the public order, and it also guarantees that parents, regardless of their religious denominations, respect the personal status system.

and religious interests.

Article 10

Education is free as long as it does not disturb public order, contradict morals, or jeopardize the dignity of one of the religions or sects, and it cannot affect the rights of sects on the one hand.

Establishing its own schools, provided that it proceeds in accordance with the general regulations issued by the state in the matter of public knowledge.

Article 11 (amended by the constitutional law issued on 9/11/1943)

Arabic is the official national language. As for the French language, the cases in which it is used are determined by law.

Article 12

Every Lebanese has the right to assume public office, with no preference for one over the other except in terms of merit and merit, according to the conditions stipulated by him.


A special system will be put in place to guarantee the rights of employees in the departments to which they belong.

Article 13

The freedom to express an opinion in word and in writing, the freedom of printing, the freedom of assembly, and the freedom to form associations are all guaranteed within the circle of law.

Article 14

The house is inviolable, and no one is permitted to enter it except in the cases and ways specified in the law.

Article 15

Ownership is under the protection of the law, and it is not permissible for anyone to expropriate his property except for reasons of public interest in the cases stipulated in the law and after Just compensate him.

10. IUL Gender Equality.

IUL and gender equality: The Islamic University of Lebanon gives way to women in order to prove their capabilities and qualifications by allocating leadership and senior roles to them. The conclusive evidence of this policy’s application is that a female president (Prof. Dina el Maoula) heads the IUL. Moreover, women also play important roles as decision-makers. They are deans of the faculty, heads of departments, coordinators of courses and supervisors of internships. At IUL, the recruitment policy is based on the qualifications, education, experience and convenience of the position or course, subject to the involvement of women in all faculties and departments. The payment policy at IUL aims at reducing gender gaps between men and women where all genders’ employees are paid equally for work of equal importance and have the same rights. Furthermore, for a pregnant full-time female teacher, there are special policies that reduce her workload. Moreover, IUL supports and encourages female students, staff and instructors to push their studies and conduct research under the IUL’s sponsorship, and through agreements between the IUL and international universities. Also, the university encourages female students to participate in conferences by covering all the required fees. 21 Under the leadership of Prof. Al Maoula, IUL received the French institutional accreditation “High Council for the Assessment of Science and Higher Education” (HCERES) for five years without any requirements or restrictions. Moreover, the French government awarded Prof Al Maoula the Academic “Palme d’Or”. Moreover, Prof. Al Maoula was appointed as president of the Association of Francophone Arab Universities in the Middle East to the 10th CONFREMO General Assembly. She also took over the presidency of the 51st session of the executive office of the Association of Arab Universities. Female students are encouraged to apply for majors where women are underrepresented such as engineering. The IUL encourages also the involvement of female students in national and international activities and training sessions. In the domain of sports, IUL supports and sponsors sports teams for female students. The results of this policy are the formation of several teams such as basketball team, Ping-Pong team, and shooting team and the accomplishments of teams and students. Moreover, application forms at IUL don’t require applicants to mention the transgender issue, whether for work or study, as the IUL believes it is a private and personal matter in which it does not intervene and does not have any impact on the application. Also, female employees and teachers are given 40-day maternity paid leave and financial assistance. At the social level, all IUL employees profit from financial assistance through several forms: covering children’s school tuitions, free registration at IUL, covering fees at another university if the desired major is not available at IUL, and health insurance. In addition, and according to IUL’s policy, women have the right to notify the administration if they were discriminated against. In this case, strict measures are applied to ensure gender equality. The University has developed the ‘Regulations for the Implementation of Gender Equality Policies in Education at the Islamic University of Lebanon.’ The Regulation specifies that: The University should not demonstrate unequal treatment on the basis of gender or sexual preference during the hiring of employees, the recruitment of students and the conditions for admission (new policies file to be approved by the president). Under Prof. Maoula’s leadership as a female and as a result of her insisting, the IUL obtained the French institutional accreditation “High Council for Evaluation of Research and Higher Education” (HCERES) for 5 years without any condition or restriction. This accreditation gives an added value for the graduation certificate of the IUL female students’. Moreover, it has also reflected positively on encouraging the students’ enrollment. The president in the Press conference through which she declared that IUL has obtained the HCERES for 5 years without any condition or restriction. Moreover, under the guidance and efforts of the female president, the IUL ranked for the first time among the top 25 in the QS University Rankings: Arab Region for 160 Arab universities, where it was ranked between 51-60 in the world [15]. Figure 20. Taken from [15] Under the spot of empowering females, the IUL instructors are directed for the participation in seminars related directly to empowering women. One example is “Girls Got IT” which is a joint initiative bringing together five active Lebanese NGOs: The Lebanese League for Women in 23 Business (LLWB), Arab Women in Computing (ArabWIC), Women in Technology (WIT), Women in Engineering (WIE) and Digital Opportunity trust (DOT) together. Girls Got IT is held under the sponsorship of the UNICEF and GIL (Generation of Innovative Leaders). “Girls Got IT” aims to break the cultural stereotypes that surround women in STEAM subjects by exposing young females to essential technology skills, allowing them to meet inspiring role models and learn more about the various success stories from their country and the world. Female instructors attend seminars for support female researches as a seminar entitled “Les ELLES de la Recherche” organized by the National Observatory for the leadership and Empowerment of Women in Research (Dawrek’n). Dawrek’n is funded by UNESCO Participation Program for 2018- 2019, it aims to support Lebanese female researchers in their efforts towards empowerment in the scientific environment, and this in all disciplines of research and innovation (basic sciences and engineering, medical sciences, environmental sciences and agriculture, human and social science s …). IUL females also conduct keynotes and present women supportive visons in other seminars organized by (Dawrek’n) as in “Dardacha Talks” and other events that are related to women in research. “Dardacha Talks” is a new format for research storytelling with a Lebanese twist and during which Lebanese female scientists from all disciplines and universities will take the challenge to popularize their research.In addition to its plan or empowering women in the society, the IUL empowerment policy is also dedicated to empower the female students. This starts for the mentoring of the school female students at the IUL open day. This open day is organized every year by IUL for all the school students during which these students get introduced to the university. The IUL staff and students provide mentoring by giving overview about the different faculties and the different majors in these faculties and their job opportunities. 24 Moreover, the female students are oriented and encouraged to apply for majors where females are underrepresented as for engineering major or other majors where the job opportunities are better for them as for nursing and others. This orientation is also carried on for the candidate students during their registration process.

Same rights and duties as employees (equal pay for work of equal value and quality)

1. Non-Discrimination and Employment Security

Anti-discrimination measures

The employer may not discriminate between working men and women with regard to: type of work, amount of wage or salary, employment, promotion, proffesional qualification, and apparel.

Labour Code Art.26

2. Lebanese Code of Labour, ILO, Policy.

3. Lebanon, An Enabling Environment Is Key For Women’s Economic Empowerment and For Sustainable

Economic Growth

Although gender-based discrimination in wages, employment and promotions is explicitly prohibited, there is no legal guarantee for women to return to the same or equivalent job after maternity leave. In Lebanon, while the Labor Law prohibits dismissal of a pregnant woman during maternity leave, there is no legal guarantee for women to return to the same or equivalent position after maternity leave, which can negatively affect their career development. Furthermore, employers are not mandated by law to support or provide childcare services for their employees.

4. The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

 Article 11 of which enshrines the right to work, equal hours of work and the right to maternity leave, as well as equal pay for equal work.